The human gut microbiome is a collection of microbes that are necessary for proper function of the digestive system and that

The human gut microbiome is a collection of microbes that are necessary for proper function of the digestive system and that contribute to the overall health of the individual. Infants are colonized with these microbes at birth and their nutrition in the early days of life is important for supporting growth of these microbes. Milk sugars are important in development of the microbiome. Which of the following best explains how both lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-fucopentaose could contribute to proper development of an infant's microbiome A. Lacto-N-fucopentaose binds to surface receptors on pathogenic bacteria and prevents them from entering epithelial cells in the intestine.
B. Lacto-N-tetraose prevents pathogenic bacteria from hydrolyzing and metabolizing carbohydrates found in the intestine.
C. Lacto-N-tetraose is a food source for bacteria that aid in digestion of this and other oligosaccharides.
D. Lacto-N-fucopentaose is digested by pathogenic bacteria and, in the process, destroys these types of bacteria.

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  1. Gut microbiome degrade the ingested milk sugars through a biochemical pathway, producing ATP required for the energy needs of infant.

    Explanation:

    The human breast milk fed on by infants  contains a high concentration of indigestible oligosaccharides which include lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-fucopentaose.

    These milk sugars are utilized by microbes in the gut of infants, yielding lactate as the final product of metabolism and releasing several molecules of ATP as useful energy for use by the infant.

    Thus, the presence of these gut microbes at birth, and the feeding of infant with breast milk is vital to fulfilling their energy needs

  2. A. Lacto-N-fucopentaose binds to surface receptors on pathogenic bacteria and prevents them from entering epithelial cells in the intestine.

    C. Lacto-N-tetraose is a food source for bacteria that aid in digestion of this and other oligosaccharides.

    Explanation:

    Human milk contains high levels of indigestible Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). It is believed that these HMOs influence the process of coevolution of the nursing infant and its microbiome. Lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) is a carbohydrate (i.e., an oligosaccharide) found in human milk. This oligosaccharide is a bioactive molecule that acts as a substrate for the development of the intestinal microflora. LNFP binds to proteins (to form glycoproteins) and lipids (to form glycolipids) localized on the surface of cells. Moreover, Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) is also an oligosaccharide found in human milk, which is used as food supplement. It has been shown that LNT prevents infection by inhibiting the adhesion mechanism of harmful bacteria and their toxins. Furthermore, LNT stimulates the development of the microbiome in early life.

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