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  1. Maintaining a high starting-material concentration can render this reaction favorable.


    A reaction is favorable when ΔG < 0 (exergonic). ΔG depends on the temperature and on the reaction of reactants and products as established in the following expression:

    ΔG = ΔG° + R.T.lnQ


    ΔG° is the standard Gibbs free energy

    R is the ideal gas constant

    T is the absolute temperature

    Q is the reaction quotient

    To make ΔG < 0 when ΔG° > 0 we need to make the term R.T.lnQ < 0. Since T is always positive we need lnQ to be negative, what happens when Q < 1. Q < 1 implies the concentration of reactants being greater than the concentration of products, that is, maintaining a high starting-material concentration will make Q < 1.

  2. using the product immediately in the next step


    An endergonic reaction requires input of energy to drive the reaction since it is not spontaneous. Using the product in the next step drives the equilibrium towards producing more products in accordance with LeChateliers principle. The immediate use of products drives the forward reaction hence the reaction continues to progress in the forward direction.

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