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  1. Answer and Explanation:

    Covalent bond is formed when electrons are shared by the atoms to fulfill their outermost shell.

    In colvalent bond atoms shares electron to gain stability because if their outermost shell is not fulfilled then they are unstable.

    So to gain stability electrons are shared by atoms in covalent bond , when they share electron their outermost shells are fulfilled and they become stable  

  2. Atoms in covalent bonds do combine so as to be stable. As covalent bond consist non metals e.g O2 in this example each atom has vacance of 2 orbitals/ electrons so shairing electrons result their stability

  3. 1. Which of the following is not true of a covalent compound? 
    It is made of only nonmetals. 

    2. What type of compound is almost always found as a solid? 

    Ionic compound is almost always found as a solid because they have very tightly bound structures.

    3. Which of the following is not a characteristic of an ionic compound? 

    It is formed when atoms share electrons. 

    4. Covalent compounds are formed when 
    a nonmetal bonds with a nonmetal. 

    5. What is the relationship between a compound and the elements it is made from? 

    The compound may have properties that are very different from those of the elements.

  4. The correct option is "to attain a noble-gas electron configuration"

    Explanation:

    All elements (with the exception of the noble gases) in the periodic table wants to achieve there duplet or octet configuration; they want there outermost shell to be completely filled (like the noble gases).

    Atoms of these elements do this in different ways during chemical combinations. For instance, during electrovalent combination, some atoms donate electron(s) (so as to have a completely filled outermost shell) and some receive electron(s) (for the same reason of having a completely filled outermost shell).

    During covalent combinations also, atoms share electrons on there outermost shell so they (the atoms involved) can have a completely filled outermost shell and hence attain a noble-gas electron configuration.

  5. Atoms share electrons in covalent bonds because in this way both atoms attain the more stable configuration of a noble gas (complete valence shell).

    Explanation:

    Covalents bonds are the chemical bonds that result when two atoms share the electrons of the valence shell (the outermost shell of the atoms).

    The shared electrons may be count as belonging to the two atoms that form the bond, and so both atoms will gain the electrons that permit them to complete the 8 electrons in their outermost shell, which is the most stable configuration of the noble gases (2 in the special case of hydrogen and helium). This is the so called octet rule.

    The covalent bonds are possible between elements that are close in the periodic table, meaning that their electronegativitiies are similar, and are typical of non-metal elements.

    When two or more atoms are bonded by covalent bonds they form a molecule. Some examples of molecules formed by pure covalent bonds are: diatomic hydrogen, diatomic chlorine, and diatomic sulfur.

    Since one atom of chlorine has 7 valence electrons it needs one additional electron to complete the 8 electrons (octet rule). Hence, two atomos of chlorine  may share one electron each, and so both atoms will count 8 electrons in the outermost shell, gaining stabilization both.

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